Shadow. For Jung, it is that part of the personality which is unknown, whether positive or negative. In Freudian terminology, it is the unconscious.

Medicine. That which heals.

Catharsis. From the Greek katharsis meaning purification, cleansing, emptying oneself of emotions through certain kinds of art and music, thereby restoring the individual to optimal clarity and poise.

Fetish. A process by which desire is transplanted onto a substitute which is treated as the real thing, engaging a cycle of frustration and repetition. It has also been used for a pre-industrial type of consciousness that was simultaneously material and spiritual, and nothing was fixed.

Archetypes. Images common to all humanity, manifesting in dreams, fantasies and collectively in myths, fairytales, and works of art. Examples of archetypal objects include the sun, moon, water, the underworld, garden, tree, egg, fire, circle. Situations include the journey, the fall, the ritual, death/rebirth. Characters include the underdog, villain, sage, trickster, serpent, outcast, hero. For Jungian psychotherapist James Hillman, they are the embracing backgrounds within which our personal sufferings can find support and be cared for.

World View. Unnoticed mental structures that interpret the world without conscious thought or critique.

The Collective Unconscious. According to Carl Jung's depth psychology, it is populated by instincts and archetypes shared across time and culture, accessed in dreams.

Shamanism. A 30,000 year old practice of trance giving access to the hidden world of spirits for information and healing. A purposeful integration of the intellectual, emotional, and spiritual capacities.

Utopia. Visions of a future that improves on the present.

Materialism. The philosophy that claims that nothing exists except concrete matter, its movements and changes.

Altered States of Consciousness. An extension of everyday awareness into a spectrum of the human nervous system by means of psychoactive drugs or non-drug techniques, that can access the meaning of dreams and a relationship to the dead, nature, and spirits.

Primitivism. A broad movement in modern art to access states of consciousness or their forms known in pre-industrial and indigenous cultures.